pearl river delta population growth

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, China witnessed gradual shrinkage of cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Population growth statistics are calculated on the basis of numbers of permanent residents, but China also has a “floating” population living away from their permanent residence (this phenomenon is described more fully later in this chapter and in Since the 2008 financial crisis, there have been great changes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), where growing and shrinking areas coexist. 47-102. Shenzhen, the showcase city of the Pearl River Delta likes to brag it is "the fastest growing city in the fastest growing region of the fastest growing province of the fastest growing country in the world." The data used. Basic Data of China's Population. Today’s data visualization comes to us from Reddit user /r/mythicquale and it shows the population growth of every country using data and projections from the United Nations population division.. Today, the Pearl River Delta's GDP clocks in at over $1.2 trillion, ahead of countries like Mexico and Indonesia, making it the 15th largest economy in the world. The Pearl River Delta is one of the most populated areas of China. Epub 2019 Dec 6. FIGURE 9-9 Gross power consumption of agricultural machinery per hectare of farmland, Dongguan, Huadu, and Zhongshan, 1980–1995. Within the region, the more industrialized subregions attract the most migrants. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses nearly 7000 square kilometers, 0.07 percent of China, with a population of 22 million people, 3.1 percent of the 2010 population of mainland China. SOURCES: The data for 1973 are from Landsat MMS and for 1995 from TM images; the 1982 data are from a field survey. Guangzhou and Shenzhen, the region’s two tier 1 cities, account for 41% of the urban population of the PRD and 57% of GDP. NOTE: Grain yield per unit farmland is a weighted average of various grains. This paper estimates econometric models of the socioeconomic drivers of land use change in the Pearl River Delta, China. For example, the policy “Eight Decrees of Environmental Protection” announced by the People's Congress and the municipal government forbids the establishment of any factory that does not have an effective facility for keeping the level of pollution below the required standard; prohibits noise levels in residential areas that exceed 45 decibels; and sets limits on automobile exhaust emissions. Table 9-2 experienced high population growth. In 2005, the wealthiest metropolises were still led by the thriving urban agglomerations of the leading advanced economies in North America, Western Europe and Japan; that is, Tokyo, New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris and London. J. Vaupel. . SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. A set of research findings on the nature of these interactions, corroborated by the use of extensive empirical data, follows. Many of the factors that have influenced soil quality in the region over the past two decades are associated with the changing population and consumption patterns. The average annual growth rate of the population in Macao and the Inland Nine Cities exceeds the annual growth rate of the urban population in the New York Bay Area. A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population. Thus the proportion of treated industrial emissions increased from 50 percent in 1986 to 87.2 percent in 1995 in Guangdong Province as a whole, and from 47 percent to about 93.1 percent in the Delta area over the same period. Farming thus still played a dominant role. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. As for urban growth, the urban area of the special economic zone of Shenzhen, for example, increased from only 2.9 square kilometers in 1979 to 84 square kilometers in 1994. FIGURE 9-11 Per capita open space and parkland, Guangzhou City, 1990–1995. Monitoring population dynamics in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 to 2010. These changes were mostly at the expense of farmland. When the special economic zones were first established, the majority of the new businesses that settled in Shenzhen and Zhuhai were Hong Kong-and Macao-based enterprises drawn to the zones to take advantage of, among many other things, the abundance of low-wage labor and the customs-free industrial environment. Stimulated by those favorable policies, township enterprises developed rapidly in the Pearl River Delta, and today they account for a large percentage of the total economic growth ( ed. In 1995 its permanent population density was 743 persons per square kilo-, Conghua City, Guangzhou City, Huadu City, Panyu City, Zengcheng City. 340 cities (40.4%) from upper-middle-income countries (e.g. This legislation not only strictly defines what is forbidden in order to prevent pollution, but also explicitly states what must be done to protect the environment—for example, the standards that must be met for drinking water, Industrial + agricultural prodn., average 1990–1995, Residents' bank balances, average 1990–1995, Annual growth rate of permanent residents, 1980–1995 (percent), Annual growth rate of total population, 1986–1995 (percent), Decrease in farmland per capita, 1986–1995 (percent), Wastewater per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Air emissions per capita, average 1990–1994 (cubic meters), Waste residue per capita, average 1990–1994 (tonnes), Index of seawater pollution at junction of river and sea, average 1991–1995. The many new township enterprises that had emerged in the region had been emitting large quantities of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air, acidifying the soil. The National Soil Survey of China, carried out during 1981–1983, and the field survey of 1996 provided detailed information on land quality at scales of 1:10,000 and 1:400,000. 2). FIGURE 9-5 Urban/built-up areas and farmland, Pearl River Delta, 1960–1995. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. First, grains and vegetables were being increasingly fed to animals to produce meat and other animal-related products such as milk. NOTE: Total population includes only persons registered in the Pearl River Delta and excludes the floating population registered in other places. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. ~ enlarge ~ ~ enlarge ~ Tang Yonglun. Figure 9-10), even though the population continued to grow. Although it covers only 1% of China’s territory and makes up 4.3% of its population, the Pearl River Delta is the biggest economic hub in the country. Preferential policies in the SEZs included a number of features designed to attract foreign investment, such as a 15 percent tax rate, tax holidays of up to five years, and the ability to repatriate corporate profits and to repatriate capital investments after a contracted period. Figure 9-12), while the portion of farmland devoted to vegetable crops increased, despite falling consumption ( Adjacent Hong Kong and Macau are not part of the economic zone. That is, GDP doubled every five years from sometime in the 80s until 2008. ~ enlarge ~ Qin Mingzhou. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. fell into two categories: official statistics and independent survey data. In fact, just prior to the handover from the United Kingdom to China, the city’s economic output was equal to a quarter of China’s entire GDP. Table 9-7). As the world’s population exceeds an incredible 6 billion people, governments—and scientists—everywhere are concerned about the prospects for sustainable development. In addition, paper manufacturing poses one of the greatest pollution threats, and wooden furniture manufacturing results in significant loss of local forests. The special economic zones were implemented by the Communist government as a virtual laboratory for experimentation with a free market economy. The overall air pollution index in Zhuhai was 44.3 percent lower. The amount of arable land had not increased, but agricultural productivity had gone up in response to reforms and intensification, so that a smaller number of laborers was required to produce the same agricultural output ( This transformation in turn has attracted millions of migrants and members of the floating workforce to the region. Rapid economic and population growth have led to serious environmental problems in the Delta region—among other things, high levels of air pollution and large quantities of wastewater and industrial waste residue. Looking at the Pearl River Delta from a global perspective and through an historical lens, what is now occurring there is similar to the industrial transformation that occurred 30 years ago in Japan. The Forty Years of Guangdong. Guangdong's early experience with reform allowed a market-oriented culture to develop earlier than in other places in the Chinese Mainland. By the mid–1990s this measure had stabilized the growth of the floating population, although some undocumented migrants remained in the city. The reform policies included: (1) very low or even no taxation on investments in the Delta, particularly when the industry benefiting from the investment was essential for advanced technology; (2) very low rental prices on farmland used for business site construction; and (3) extension of the right to enterprises to recruit and dismiss employees. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. NOTE: Grain yield per unit farmland is a weighted average of various grains. As rosy as the picture is, the big Wow on this trip was learning how China’s Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is outpacing the rest of the country in terms of economic growth and innovation. With annual gross domestic product growth of 13.45 percent over three decades since 1978, it is 3.5 percentage points higher than the national average. Population and Land Use in India, China, and the United States: Context, Observations, and Findings, 1. The flexible spatial mobility policy allowed people to seek the economic opportunities available in the Pearl River Delta region. Increased inputs of farmyard manure in order to raise levels of organic matter and total nitrogen accompanied the shift of cropland, including paddy field and uplands, to garden land or vegetable land. Table 9-1). SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions, Guangdong Province, and China, 1960–1991. Figure 9-13). 1994. For example, during 1990–1995 in Zhuhai the average wastewater, air pollution emissions, and waste residue per capita were about 16.4, 15.3, and 53.4 percent lower, respectively, than the corresponding averages for the other five municipalities. Shenzhen, the showcase city of the Pearl River Delta likes to brag it is "the fastest growing city in the fastest growing region of the fastest growing province of the fastest growing country in the world." Farmland data from Statistical Yearbooks from every city. FIGURE 9-10 Per capita residential floor space, Guangzhou City, 1965–1995. ~ enlarge ~ The Pearl River Delta, situated in southern China's Guangdong Province, is formed by alluvium delivered from the West, North, and East Rivers. Lu Faxi. The area known as the Pearl River Delta , located in the southern Duandong providence, is China’s $300 billion plan to create a megacity and hub for advanced industrial practices. 1988 From 1950 to 1995, farmland in the Delta region dropped from 550,000 hectares to 310,000 hectares. Zeng Yi, and In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, China witnessed gradual shrinkage of cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). 1989. FIGURE 9-14 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. By 2015, according to World Bank figures, it had become the world's largest urban area in both size and population. It also is a major market for transportation and trade-related services. Finding 6: Since the early 1980s, environmental quality has deteriorated in many parts of the Pearl River Delta, particularly in some townships. In recent years, the development environment for indigenous private-owned enterprises has improved dramatically in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and local firms are now playing an ever-growing role in the region's economy. View our suggested citation for this chapter. The specific region examined in this chapter is in the central part of the Pearl River Delta, which covers 17,219 square kilometers. With the rapid increase of this population, housing construction was accelerated and grew from 0.17 million square meters in 1980 to 1.69 million square meters in 1989. The proportion of wastewater processed up to industrial discharge standards decreased from 30 percent in 1986 to 21 percent in 1994. Also important, compared with cities in the other municipalities, Zhuhai City has a comparatively higher proportion of light industry to heavy industry, which generally leads to lower levels of pollution. Gender Dimensions of the Relationship between Population and Land Use in the Indian States of Kerala and Haryana, 9. In urban areas intensification has taken the form of significant increases in population density since 1980 ( As further evidence of its growth, Shenzhen had a built-up area of 58,507 hectares in 1990 compared with only 10,814 hectares in 1982. In addition, two detailed surveys of land use in the Pearl River Delta dating from 1982 and 1990 were available. The highway system also expanded—by 82 percent from 1980 to 1994, reaching 0.6 kilometers per square kilometer. Approach on macro distribution of ecological environment of Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. . FIGURE 9-8 Unit area grain yield, Dongguan and Shenzhen, 1949–1996. Finding 2: In the Pearl River Delta changes in consumption levels caused by the economic growth have led to changes in land use in cities and changes in crop production in rural areas. Even for a nation known for eye-popping rates of urbanization, what has happened along China’s Pearl River Delta … Int J Biometeorol. Since economic reform was implemented in China in 1978 (see Third, the government has invested substantially in increasing the capacity of the Zhuhai municipality to process wastewater, air pollution, and solid waste, and it has established a sophisticated environmental protection network and environmental protection offices at various administrative levels, right down to the townships and neighborhood committees. The Pearl River Delta, in the province of Guangdong, has been China’s manufacturing hub for decades. The result was development of a special policy for the floating population. Beijing: China Population Press; Statistical Yearbooks for Shenzhen and Zhuhai. World Population Growth Visualized (1950-2100) In any large set of data, there are bound to be some interesting outliers. Population density change detection for the Pearl River Delta, 2000–2015. Generally, soil quality was improved because the garden land received higher inputs of farmyard manure and more intensive management than the cropland. Between 1978 and 1980 chemical fertilizer applications in general soared as the economic reform and Open Door policies were implemented. Beijing: China Statistical Press, p. 311. adequate public transportation, housing, medical care, education, and living environments. Given the massive scale of its export sector, the region has become an important industrial market for all sorts of inputs, materials, and capital goods. Economic Transformation of the Greater Pearl River Delta | 4 RESOLVING TRADE IMBALANCES China’s trade surplus with the U.S., at $273 billion in 2010, 9 is the world’s largest and indicative of an imbalance—the U.S. has been buying cheap goods from China, and China has been accumulating U.S. However, the rapid increase of population density in the Pearl River Delta has led to an increase in food demand and severe pressure on fishery resources [24] . Figure. These zones, which operate under an entirely different economic premise than that of the mainland, emphasize exports and are intended to serve as an attractive environment for foreign direct investment through favorable tax incentives. Download : Download high-res image (1MB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. The zone occupies an area of around 70,000 square miles. First, the government of Zhuhai municipality has strongly emphasized the strategic importance of protecting the environment, and all city planning, construction, and economic development programs are expected to conform to high environmental standards. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), one of the most representative areas of rapid urbanization in China, is characterized by export-oriented economy and “exo-urbanization.” Induced by the financial crisis of 2008, new spatial symptoms related to urban shrinkage, such as factory collapses, job losses, and vacant dwellings, were observed in this area. 1988. Among the total permanent residents of the Delta area, this proportion increased from about 36 percent in 1980 to about 52 percent in 1995. SOURCES: Yao Xinwu and Yinhua. The Pan Pearl River Delta (PPRD) Regional Co‐operation Framework Agreement was signed in 2004. Over the last decade, the ties between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta have developed drastically, perhaps best demonstrated by the tremendous growth in cross-border traffic. ~ enlarge ~ ~ enlarge ~ Ratio of Floating to Permanent Population (percent). In the meantime, the proportion of urban/built-up land increased from 2.4 percent in 1973 to 15.7 percent in 1995. By 2050, the global population is expected to soar to 9.7 billion, with 68% of the population living in urban areas. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. In Southern China, the Pearl River Delta is giving rise to an urban super-power in the first rank. Calculations by Qin Mingzhou. Zhuhai, however, is one of the fastest-growing municipalities, and its floating population is rising rapidly. It is responsible for 26.8% of the country’s exports, making it third in trade after the United States and Germany, according to the Yearbook. In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. The abundance of employment … SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, 1996. In the Delta area it mainly reflects rice production. Table 9-3). The effect of urbanization and climate change on the mosquito population in the Pearl River Delta … In the 1980s, increases in agricultural productivity, accompanied by the coming of age of the population surge of the 1960s, resulted in an influx of larger numbers of young surplus agricultural laborers into the Pearl River Delta. Figure 9-5). ~ enlarge ~ By 1979, China’s Pearl River Delta had seen little urbanization. SOURCE: Cost investigation of agricultural products in Guangzhou, 1989–1995, Guangzhou Price Bureau (systematized by Qin Mingzhou). A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population.[3]. FIGURE 9-7 Farmland and net migration rate, Pearl River Delta, 1980–1994. As a result, Shenzhen saw its floating population grow from 10,000 in 1980 to 600,000 in 1989. A 2015 report concluded that, if taken as a single urban area, the zone is the largest such area in the world in both area and population. For example, the cities of Zhuhai and Shenzhen, two of the special economic zones1 Intensified land use also is evident in agriculture, where more farmland must be converted to nonagricultural uses to make room for urbanization. This city was a seaport in the 4 th Century, and is now located well inland from the current Ebro river mouth. In the process, a region that was once largely agricultural has emerged as a manufacturing platform of global importance. Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Beijing in China, Sao Paulo in Brazil) 127 cities (15.1%) from … Figure 9-1 and Yet the case of Zhuhai City suggests that rapid economic growth accompanied by massive inmigration does not necessarily result in severe environmental degradation. Industries were built in response to market demands. Sixteen major soil types were observed continually in the Delta region from 1960 to 1980. (Note 1) a factor greater than four from 1980 to 1995 in much of the Delta area ( The volume of automobile and factory emissions in the Delta area more than tripled from 1986 to 1995, and the volume of sulfur dioxide released into the atmosphere is estimated to be about 24 times higher than the average for China as a whole. GDP growth of the Pearl River Delta in mainland China 2009-2019 Published by C. Textor , Oct 21, 2020 Finding 5: The urbanization policy adopted in the Pearl River Delta alleviated to some extent the population pressures on urban areas by encouraging the rapid development of small towns so they could absorb many of the surplus rural laborers who otherwise would have settled in the larger urban centers. At the early stages of economic development beginning in 1978, the local production of goods and services served mainly to supply local demand. Another aim of the plan is to … At the same time, there was significant growth in smaller urban areas. 2, pp. Urban and built-up land now makes up a significant proportion of the Delta region, thanks largely to the ongoing industrial development and infrastructure construction in the area ( That is, GDP doubled every five years from sometime in the 80s until 2008. As a result, not only governments and state-owned enterprises but also private real estate companies can now invest in housing development. 3Because of a lack of data, it is hard to show the complete picture of changes in cropping patterns in the Delta region. Huadu, Conghua, Zengcheng, and Panyu, all counties in the municipality of Gangzhou, were selected to illustrate patterns of farmland use. . In Shenzhen City, for example, the local government began to control the size of the floating population by requiring special registration forms. Over the next 13 years, however, the proportion of farmland dropped, to 17.6 percent of total land area in 1995. FIGURE 9-1 Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province. . One government housing reform policy allowed diversification of housing construction. Some industries—particularly iron ore, pig iron, raw coal, calcium sulfate ore, phosphate fertilizer, cement, and calcium sulfate—produce considerable quantities of solid and liquid waste. SOURCES: Selected Statistical Yearbooks for subregions of Pearl River Delta, 1980–1995. A considerable portion of this tremendous increase, however, resulted from the redrawing of administrative boundaries. The economic power of the Pearl River Delta is best reflected by the fact that although the region’s population is 5% of that of China, it produces more than 10% of its economic output, which would in itself make the area the 12th most powerful national economy, surpassing the economic power of Russia (1283.2 billion USD). The area experiences heavy rainfall during the monsoon months between April and September with annual rainfall of about 1,700 millimeters an… Geocarto International: Vol. This development stemmed in part from rising incomes and in. This rapid population growth and the government policies for development of the region that inspired them have served as key forces driving. (2020). In this study, we introduce the concept of economic resilience to analyse urban growth and shrinkage in the context of a rapidly-urbanising region. ~ enlarge ~ The explosive growth the Pearl River Delta has upended the regional balance of power. In this regard, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan, and other parts of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone have been at the forefront of private sector development in China. During the early stages of this agricultural labor transition, surplus agricultural laborers moved to the big cities to find jobs. Figure 9-8). They include construction of the 31-mile (50 km) Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge linking Hong Kong, Macau and the Pearl River Delta. Land Economics. These policies had large impacts on land use in Pearl River Delta—among them, a reduction in agricultural land. If the enterprise then passes the environmental protection examination at the end of the year, the sum is returned along with an additional financial reward. Chapter 8. In 1980, the People’s Republic of China established a special economic zone, Shenzhen, to attract foreign investment in this area just north of Hong Kong. The Pearl River Delta has witnessed the most rapid urban expansion in human history – a predominantly agricultural region transformed into the world’s largest continuous city. Many industries, however, are reluctant to allocate financial resources toward improving the environment. level of Guangdong. Indeed, the economic output per unit of land has increased dramatically; the gross domestic product of Delta cities increased from 6.7 billion yuan in 1980 to 233.3 billion yuan in 1995. Pearl River Delta: China’s Biggest Economic Hub. Treating the Pearl River Delta as … SOURCE: The Forty Years of Guangzhou (1949–1988). 1997 1997. India's Urban Population Growth Is Mostly Driven By Migration India Has Been Urbanizing Rapidly In The Period Between 2000 And 2020 India Has A Primate Urban System Indian Cities Have Weak Municipal Governments Which Province Is The Major Destination For Migrants In China? Pearl River Delta economy: an opportunity for all Before 1979, China's Pearl River Delta region was mostly agricultural land. The development of the sleepy Pearl River Delta has shown the world what a dramatic growth spurt can do as cities merge and megacities are born. Changes in diet and crop production offer additional evidence of shifts in consumption. 14, pp. Greening built-up areas in Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) city clusters. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. The Pearl River Delta has been one of most economically dynamic regions of the People's Republic of China since the launch of China’s reform programme in 1979. Shenzhen is The change in farmland can be divided into two periods: the period before 1980 when farmland decreased relatively slowly, and the period after 1980 and particularly after 1990, when the rate of decline was more significant ( SOURCE: Environment Bulletin of Guangdong Province, 1990 and 1995. The region is made up of 13 counties and cities distributed among six municipalities that lie on either side of the Pearl River estuary (see This indicator also overestimates the true level of urbanization, however, because some people who engaged in nonagricultural work lived in rural areas where there has been rapid growth in rural enterprises. 35, No. At the close of the 20th century, Hong Kong was the undisputed economic powerhouse of the region. tied to declines in grassland, because most of the grassland, gardens, and forests are located on mountain slopes and hillsides. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. All these steps have been effective at curbing pollution in the Zhuhai municipality. Evolution of the Chicago Landscape: Population Dynamics, Economic Development, and Land Use Change. Historically the Pearl River Delta was an important grain-growing region of China, and farming played a dominant role in basic land use patterns until the 1980s. NOTE: Total population includes only persons registered in the Pearl River Delta and excludes the floating population registered in other places. The permanent population of Zhuhai is only 600,000; the other municipalities range in population from more than 1 million to several million. 1989 Postdoctoral report, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, The construction of 1,864 miles (3,000 km) of highways in the region was to be completed by 2012, and rail expansions of 683 miles (1,099 km) by 2012 and 1,367 miles (2,200 km) by 2020. . In 1995 the population density of the Delta area was 1,173 persons per square kilometer, compared with 439 persons per square kilometer in Guangdong Province as a whole. ~ enlarge ~ For example, since 1980 agricultural intensification in Shenzhen and Dongguan has generally increased grain yields per unit of farmland ( Modeling the drivers of urban land use change in the Pearl River Delta, China: Integrating remote sensing with socioeconomic data.

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